The processes that threaten Indonesian plants

Sugeng Budiharta, Didik Widyatmoko, Irawati, Harry Wiriadinata, Rugayah, Tukirin Partomihardjo, Ismail, Tahan Uji, Ary Prihardhyanto Keim and Kerrie A. Wilson

The processes that threaten Indonesian plants. Oryx 45:172-179. DOI: 10.1017/S0030605310001092


The processes that threaten 240 Indonesian threatened plants were identified and categorized based on a comprehensive review of the published literature and elicitation of information from experts. Intrinsic biological factors and habitat loss are the major causes of plant endangerment in Indonesia (affecting 83 and 82% of species respectively), followed by overexploitation (64%) and natural factors (6%). The dominant threats vary between major plant groups, with habitat loss being particularly important for palms and trees, and biological factors important for orchids. For all studied plant species three sets of inter-related threatening processes (threat syndromes) were identified that differed among the major plant groups. By identifying and evaluating the processes that threaten plants in Indonesia we provide knowledge to guide their future conservation.

Dendrogram of the three threat syndromes (Fig. 3) to five groups of plants: (a) orchids; (b) palms; (c) shrubs; (d) trees; (e) others.